The most frequently observed problems, related to cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVM), are headaches, seizures, cranial nerve deficits and back pain, and nausea may follow the occurrence of coagulated blood escaping into the CSF in the vertebral column. Some patients with AVM have no symptoms at all. Progressive weakness and numbness and vision changes as well as debilitating, excruciating pain may also occur depending on the location of the AVMs. In serious cases, the vessels may rupture and cause intracranial haemorrhage. In patients with AVM haemorrhage, symptoms caused by bleeding include loss of consciousness, sudden and severe headache, nausea, vomiting, incontinence, and blurred vision, amongst others. Local damage on the bleed site are also possible and can cause seizure, one-sided weakness (hemiparesis, as in this patient), a loss of touch sensation on one side of the body, and deficits in language processing (aphasia). Ruptured AVMs are responsible for considerable mortality and morbidity.
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